What Do Rabbits Eat and Drink?

what do rabbits eat and drink

Rabbits are herbivorous animals with a dietary preference for plant material. They have a unique digestive system designed to efficiently process a high-fiber, low-fat, and low-sugar diet.

In the wild, rabbits primarily consume grasses, hays, herbs, and weeds, relying on a diverse array of vegetation for their nutrition. Domesticated rabbits, as pets, have similar dietary needs and require a well-balanced diet to ensure their optimal health. This includes a combination of high-quality hay, fresh vegetables, limited pellets, and occasional treats.

Understanding what rabbits eat is essential for providing them with a nutritionally balanced diet and promoting their overall well-being.

What Foods Do Rabbits Eat?

1. Hay:

Rabbits can eat various types of hay, but the key is to provide them with high-quality grass hay that is free from mold, dust, and pesticides. Here are some common types of hay that rabbits can eat:

  • Timothy Hay
  • Orchard Grass Hay
  • Meadow Hay
  • Brome Hay
  • Oat Hay

When selecting hay for your rabbit, look for green, fragrant, and leafy strands. Avoid hay that is brown, dusty, or has a musty smell, as it may be of poor quality or spoiled. Remember to store hay in a cool, dry place to maintain its freshness and nutritional value.

2. Fresh Vegetables:

Rabbits can enjoy a variety of fresh vegetables as part of their diet. It’s important to introduce new vegetables gradually, as sudden changes in their diet can cause digestive issues. Here are some examples of fresh vegetables that rabbits can eat:

Remember to wash vegetables thoroughly before feeding them to your rabbit and introduce new foods gradually. Monitor your rabbit’s reaction to each vegetable and ensure they have a balanced diet that includes a variety of fresh vegetables, hay, and water.

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3. Fresh Herbs:

Rabbits can enjoy a variety of fresh herbs as part of their diet. These herbs can provide additional flavors and nutrients to their meals. Here are some fresh herbs that rabbits can eat:

  • Parsley
  • Cilantro
  • Dill
  • Basil
  • Mint
  • Oregano
  • Thyme

When offering fresh herbs to rabbits, it’s important to ensure they are fresh, free from pesticides, and properly washed before feeding. Introduce new herbs gradually and monitor your rabbit’s reaction to each one.

4. Fruits:

Rabbits can enjoy a variety of fruits as occasional treats due to their higher sugar content. Fruits should be given in moderation to prevent digestive issues and obesity. Here are some fruits that rabbits can eat:

  • Apples (without seeds or core)
  • Berries (strawberries, blueberries, raspberries)
  • Bananas (in moderation)
  • Melons (watermelon, cantaloupe)
  • Pineapple (in moderation)

When offering fruits to rabbits, it’s essential to provide them in small portions and monitor their intake. Remember that fruits should be considered treats and should not exceed 10% of their overall diet. Always remove any seeds, pits, or cores from the fruits before offering them to rabbits. Additionally, if you notice any signs of digestive upset or changes in your rabbit’s behavior after consuming fruits, it’s best to consult a veterinarian.

5. Pellets:

Rabbits can be fed commercial rabbit pellets as a part of their diet. These pellets are specially formulated to provide the essential nutrients that rabbits need. When choosing rabbit pellets, it is important to select high-quality options that are specifically designed for rabbits. Here are some key considerations:

  • Timothy-Based Pellets: Look for pellets that are primarily made from Timothy hay. Timothy-based pellets are generally recommended for rabbits since timothy hay is an important component of their diet.
  • High-Fiber Content: Ensure that the pellets have a high fiber content, typically around 18-20%. Fiber is crucial for maintaining proper digestion and overall gut health in rabbits.
  • Limited Additives: Avoid pellets that contain excessive amounts of added sugars, artificial colors, or preservatives. It’s best to opt for pellets with minimal additives.
  • Age-Specific Formulas: There are specific rabbit pellets available for different life stages, such as pellets for young rabbits (junior formula) and those for adult or senior rabbits. Choose the appropriate formula based on your rabbit’s age.
  • Freshness: Check the expiration or manufacturing date on the pellet bag to ensure freshness. Fresh pellets retain their nutritional value and taste better for rabbits.

Pellets should be fed in moderation as a supplement to a rabbit’s diet, with the majority of their nutrition coming from hay and fresh vegetables. The recommended daily pellet portion typically ranges from 1/8 to 1/4 cup per 5 pounds of body weight, but consult with a veterinarian to determine the appropriate amount for your specific rabbit.

6. Fresh Water:

Rabbits primarily drink fresh water to meet their hydration needs. It’s important to provide clean, fresh water to rabbits at all times. Here are some key considerations regarding the water for rabbits:

  • Freshness: Ensure that the water is fresh and clean. Replace the water daily to maintain its freshness and cleanliness. Stale or dirty water can discourage rabbits from drinking an adequate amount.
  • Clean Container: Use a clean water container or water bottle specifically designed for rabbits. Choose a container that is sturdy, tip-resistant, and easy to clean. Ceramic bowls or sipper bottles with a ball-bearing mechanism are commonly used for rabbits.
  • Accessibility: Place the water container in an easily accessible location within the rabbit’s enclosure. Ensure that the rabbit can reach the water without difficulty.
  • Quantity: Rabbits generally drink a significant amount of water each day. The exact amount can vary depending on factors such as the rabbit’s size, activity level, and environmental conditions. It’s crucial to monitor the water level and refill as needed to prevent dehydration.
  • Water Quality: Provide fresh tap water or filtered water that is safe for human consumption. Avoid giving rabbits water that contains contaminants, such as chlorine or excessive minerals. If you have concerns about the quality of your tap water, consider using a water filter or consult with your veterinarian for recommendations.

Read more on “How long rabbits can live without water”

What Human Food Rabbits Can Eat?

What Do Rabbits Eat?

While rabbits have specific dietary requirements and their main diet should consist of hay, fresh vegetables, and a limited amount of pellets, there are some human foods that rabbits can eat in small quantities. However, it’s crucial to introduce these foods gradually and monitor your rabbit’s response to ensure they tolerate them well. Here is a list of human foods that rabbits can eat in moderation:

  • Carrots
  • Apples
  • Strawberries
  • Blueberries
  • Banana
  • Papaya
  • Watermelon
  • Cucumber
  • Parsley
  • Mint
  • Bell Peppers
  • Celery
  • Basil
  • Oregano
  • Rosemary
  • Broccoli leaves and stalks
  • Pumpkin
  • Raspberries
  • Blackberries
  • Pineapple (in moderation)

Remember, each rabbit may have individual preferences and tolerances when it comes to human foods. Introduce new foods gradually and observe your rabbit’s response. Avoid offering foods that are high in sugar, salt, or fat, as well as any toxic foods such as chocolate, caffeine, onions, garlic, or avocado.

What Do Baby Rabbits Eat?

Baby rabbits, also known as kits, have specific dietary needs during their early stages of life. Here’s a breakdown of what baby rabbits eat:

  • Mother’s Milk: For the first few weeks of their lives, baby rabbits rely solely on their mother’s milk for nutrition. Rabbit milk is highly nutritious and provides essential antibodies for their immune system.
  • Transition to Solid Food: Around three to four weeks of age, baby rabbits begin nibbling on solid food alongside nursing from their mother. This is when you can start introducing certain foods to supplement their diet.
  • Alfalfa Hay: Offer high-quality, fresh alfalfa hay to baby rabbits as soon as they start showing an interest in solid food. Alfalfa Hay provides essential nutrients for their digestive health.
  • Pellets: Introduce a small amount of high-quality, alfalfa-based pellets to their diet around three to four weeks of age. Alfalfa-based pellets are higher in protein and calcium, which is beneficial for young rabbits’ growth. As the kits grow older (around 7 months), transition them to timothy-based pellets.
  • Fresh Vegetables: Around three to four weeks old, gradually introduce small amounts of fresh vegetables to their diet. Start with leafy greens like cilantro, parsley, and romaine lettuce. Introduce new vegetables one at a time to monitor their tolerance and avoid digestive upsets.

It is crucial to consult with a veterinarian experienced in rabbit care to ensure you’re providing the proper nutrition and transitioning the kits to solid food appropriately. Each rabbit may have individual needs and growth rates, so monitoring their health and weight gain is essential.

What Do Wild Rabbits Eat?

In the wild, rabbits have a natural diet that consists primarily of plant material. Here’s a list of what rabbits typically eat in their natural habitat:

  • Grass: Grass is a staple food for wild rabbits. They graze on various types of grasses, including meadow grass, Kentucky bluegrass, ryegrass, and others.
  • Hay: Wild rabbits consume a variety of dried grasses and hays that are available in their environment. They rely on these fibrous materials for digestion and to wear down their continuously growing teeth.
  • Herbs and Weeds: Wild rabbits forage on a wide range of herbs and weeds, including dandelions, clover, plantain, chickweed, thistles, and many others. They seek out these plants for both their nutritional value and taste.
  • Bark and Twigs: During seasons when fresh greens are scarce, wild rabbits may nibble on the bark, small twigs, and shoots of shrubs and young trees. This behavior helps them supplement their diet and fulfill their need to chew.
  • Leafy Greens: Wild rabbits also consume various leafy greens found in their environment. This can include young leaves of bushes, shrubs, and certain wild plants that are safe for consumption.
  • Fruits and Seeds: In some cases, wild rabbits may eat fruits, berries, and seeds that are available in their habitat. However, these make up a smaller portion of their diet compared to grasses and plants.

Note that the diet of wild rabbits can vary depending on their geographical location and the availability of plant resources in their specific habitat. Their diet is primarily focused on high-fiber vegetation to maintain proper digestion and overall health.

What Is A Rabbit’s Favorite Treat?

A rabbit’s favorite treat can vary from rabbit to rabbit, as individual preferences can differ. However, there are a few treats that are commonly enjoyed by many rabbits which include;

  • Fresh Vegetables: Many rabbits enjoy a variety of fresh vegetables as treats. Some popular choices include carrot tops, parsley, cilantro, dandelion greens, and leafy lettuces (such as romaine or green leaf lettuce). Just remember to introduce new vegetables gradually and monitor your rabbit’s response.
  • Fruit: While fruits are higher in sugar and should be given sparingly, many rabbits appreciate the occasional sweet treat. Small, bite-sized portions of fruits like apples, strawberries, blueberries, and bananas can be enjoyed by some rabbits.
  • Timothy Hay-based Treats: There are commercially available treats made specifically for rabbits, often in the form of Timothy Hay-based cookies, sticks, or balls. These treats provide a crunchy texture and can help satisfy a rabbit’s instinct to chew.
  • Herbs: Fresh herbs such as parsley, dill, basil, and mint can be enticing treats for rabbits. They provide a burst of flavor and can be offered in small amounts.
  • Oat or Barley Hay Treats: Some rabbits enjoy hay-based treats that are made from oat or barley hay. These treats come in various shapes and sizes and can provide a different texture and taste experience.

Remember that treats should only make up a small portion of a rabbit’s overall diet. It’s essential to provide a balanced diet consisting primarily of hay, fresh vegetables, and a limited amount of pellets to ensure the rabbit’s nutritional needs are met. Additionally, always introduce new treats gradually and monitor your rabbit for any adverse reactions or changes in digestion.

What Foods Are Toxic To Rabbits?

Certain foods are toxic to rabbits and should be avoided to prevent health issues. Here is a list of foods that are toxic or harmful to rabbits:

  • Chocolate: Chocolate contains theobromine and caffeine, which are toxic to rabbits. Even small amounts can cause severe health problems and should be kept away from them.
  • Avocado: Avocado contains a substance called persin, which can be toxic to rabbits. It can cause digestive upset, difficulty breathing, and even heart failure.
  • Onions and Garlic: Onions and garlic contain compounds that can damage a rabbit’s red blood cells, leading to anemia. They should be avoided in all forms, including raw, cooked, powdered, in processed foods.
  • Rhubarb: The leaves and stems of rhubarb contain high levels of oxalates, which can cause kidney damage and other health issues in rabbits.
  • Tomato Leaves and Stems: The leaves and stems of tomato plants contain a toxin called solanine, which is harmful to rabbits. While the ripe fruits themselves are safe in moderation, other parts of the plant should be avoided.
  • Potatoes: Raw potatoes and their peels contain solanine, which is toxic to rabbits. Generally, cooked potatoes are safe for rabbits in small amounts, but it is advisable to give them sparingly due to their high starch content.
  • Nuts and Seeds: Nuts and seeds, especially those with high-fat content, can cause digestive issues and obesity in rabbits. They should be avoided as treats.
  • Iceberg Lettuce: Iceberg lettuce has a high water content but lacks significant nutritional value for rabbits. It can also cause digestive upset and diarrhea if given in large quantities.

what do rabbits drink?

Rabbits primarily drink water, just like many other animals. Rabbits need to have access to fresh, clean water at all times to stay properly hydrated. Water is essential for their overall health and helps with various bodily functions, including digestion.

It is recommended to provide rabbits with a water bottle or a water bowl that is securely attached to their enclosure to prevent tipping or contamination.

In addition to water, rabbits have a limited number of other beverages they may consume. While water should make up the majority of their fluid intake, rabbits can also derive moisture from certain foods they eat. Fresh vegetables and leafy greens, such as lettuce, celery, and cucumber, have a high water content and can contribute to their hydration.

However, it’s important to note that rabbits should not rely solely on these foods for their water needs. Water remains the most critical source of hydration for rabbits. Their digestive systems are designed to process a high-fiber diet, and excessive amounts of watery foods can lead to diarrhea and other gastrointestinal issues.

During warmer months or in environments with higher temperatures, it becomes especially crucial to monitor a rabbit’s water intake. Heat can cause rabbits to become dehydrated more quickly, so ensuring a constant supply of fresh water is essential.

As responsible pet owners, it’s important to check your rabbit’s water supply regularly, clean their water containers, and provide them with ample access to clean water. If you suspect your rabbit is not drinking enough or showing signs of dehydration (such as lethargy, dry mouth, or sunken eyes), it is advisable to consult a veterinarian for guidance and support.


Rabbits have specific dietary requirements to maintain their health and well-being. A balanced diet for rabbits includes high-quality hay, fresh vegetables, appropriate pellets, and occasional treats.

Hay provides essential fiber for digestion and keeps their teeth in good condition. Fresh vegetables offer a variety of nutrients, while pellets provide additional nutrition.

It is important to introduce new foods gradually and monitor your rabbit’s response. Avoid feeding toxic or harmful foods such as chocolate, onions, garlic, and avocado.

By understanding and meeting a rabbit’s dietary needs, you can ensure they lead a happy and healthy life. Remember to consult with a veterinarian for specific dietary recommendations based on your rabbit’s individual needs.

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